- An artificial intelligence neural network, Rafael Madonna with Roses He determined that the face of St. Joseph in the painting known as (Madonna della Rosa) was not drawn by Raphael.
- For this analysis, the research team modified a pre-trained system called ResNet50, developed by Microsoft, by combining it with a traditional machine learning technique called Support Vector Machine.
- The research team emphasizes that the artificial intelligence used for research on the painting, which has been a topic of discussion for many years, will remain only as an aid.
Artificial intelligence (AI) can be trained to see details in images that escape human eyes. Now an AI neural network has detected something unusual about the face of St. Joseph in Raphael’s painting known as Madonna della Rosa. Has detected: This face was not actually drawn by Rafael.
Scholars have long debated whether the painting was actually a Raphael work. While various evidence is required to determine the source of a work of art, a new analysis method based on an artificial intelligence algorithm revealed that some touches came from the hand of another artist.
Researchers from the UK and the USA have developed a special analysis algorithm based on works that we know to be the result of the Italian master’s brushwork.
“Using deep feature analysis, we used validated images of Raphael paintings to train the computer to recognize the painting’s style in great detail, from brush strokes to color palette, shading and every aspect of the work,” said Hassan Ugail, a mathematician and computer scientist at the University of Bradford in England. The computer sees at a much deeper, microscopic level than the human eye. ”
Machine learning processes often need to be trained on a large pool of samples, something that is not always possible when considering a single artist’s lifetime work. In this case, the team modified a pre-trained system called ResNet50, developed by Microsoft, by combining it with a traditional machine learning technique called Support Vector Machine.
The method has previously been shown to have a 98% accuracy level in identifying Raphael charts. The system, which is usually trained on whole images, was this time also asked to look at individual faces.
While the Madonna, the Child, and St. John all appear to be by the hand of Raphael, this is not the case with St. Joseph. Researchers state that in previous discussions about the authenticity of the picture, it was thought that St. Joseph’s face was drawn worse than the other faces in the frame.
“When we tested the table as a whole, the results were inconclusive. “We then tested individual pieces and it became clear that Joseph’s face was most likely not Raphael, while the rest of the painting was confirmed to be Raphael.” says Ugail.
Giulio Romano, one of Rafael’s students, may have been responsible for the fourth face, but this is not certain. This is another example of modern technology unlocking the secrets of classical paintings, this time with artificial intelligence. Experts think that the Madonna with a Rose was painted on canvas between 1518 and 1520. Art critics began to suspect in the mid-1800s that Raphael may not have painted the entire work. Now these suspicions can be confirmed.
The research team behind the study tries to emphasize that this artificial intelligence will help art experts in the future, rather than take their jobs away. Ugail added: “This is not a case of artificial intelligence taking away people’s jobs. The process of authenticating a work of art requires looking at many aspects of the work, such as its provenance, pigments, condition, and more. This type of software can be used as a tool to assist the process.”
Compiled by: Esin Özcan